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琉球大学医学部学士編入問題(2014年小論文Ⅰ)

Photo:366 • 149 • Last day before final exam By:Pragmagraphr
Photo:366 • 149 • Last day before final exam By Pragmagraphr

小論文Ⅰ(9:00-10:30)

2013年は地域医療問題に関する日本語の資料を読んで、その解決策などを資料の内容に照らし合わせて記述する小論文形式の問題もありましたが、今年はすべて英文でした。

 試験問題は公開されていませんので、実際の問題文とは異なります。参考程度にして下さい。

大問1

Studies in Drosophila Provide a Key to Vertebrate Development

The fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster (Figure 1-48) has been in use as a model genetic organism for longer than any other; in fact, the foundations of classical genetics were built to a large extent on studies of this insect. Over 80 years ago, it provided, for example, definitive proof that genes—the abstract units of hereditary information—are carried on chromosomes, concrete physical objects whose behavior had been closely followed in the eucaryotic cell with the light microscope, but whose function was at first unknown. The proof depended on one of the many features that make Drosophila peculiarly convenient for genetics—the giant chromosomes, with characteristic banded appearance, that are visible in some of its cells (Figure 1-49). Specific changes in the hereditary information, manifest in families of mutant flies, were found to correlate exactly with the loss or alteration of specific giant-chromosome bands.

Figure 1-48. Molecular genetic studies on this fly have provided the main key to understanding how all animals develop from a fertilized egg into an adult.

Figure 1-48

Molecular genetic studies on this fly have provided the main key to understanding how all animals develop from a fertilized egg into an adult. (From E.B. Lewis, Science 221:cover, 1983. © AAAS.)

Figure 1-49. Giant chromosomes from salivary gland cells of Drosophila.

Figure 1-49

Giant chromosomes from salivary gland cells of Drosophila. Because many rounds of DNA replication have occurred without an intervening cell division, each of the chromosomes in these unusual cells contains over a 1000 identical DNA molecules, all aligned (more...)

In more recent times, Drosophila, more than any other organism, has shown us how to trace the chain of cause and effect from the genetic instructions encoded in the chromosomal DNA to the structure of the adult multicellular body. Drosophila mutants with body parts strangely misplaced or mispatterned provided the key to the identification and characterization of the genes required to make a properly structured body, with gut, limbs, eyes, and all the other parts in their correct places. Once these Drosophila genes were sequenced, the genomes of vertebrates could be scanned for homologs. These were found, and their functions in vertebrates were then tested by analyzing mice in which the genes had been mutated. The results, as we see later in the book, reveal an astonishing degree of similarity in the molecular mechanisms of insect and vertebrate development.

The majority of all named species of living organisms are insects. Even if Drosophila had nothing in common with vertebrates, but only with insects, it would still be an important model organism. But if understanding the molecular genetics of vertebrates is the goal, why not simply tackle the problem head-on? Why sidle up to it obliquely, through studies in Drosophila?

Drosophila requires only 9 days to progress from a fertilized egg to an adult; it is vastly easier and cheaper to breed than any vertebrate, and its genome is much smaller—about 170 million nucleotide pairs, compared with 3200 million for a human. This codes for about 14,000 proteins, and mutants can now be obtained for essentially any gene. But there is also another, deeper reason why genetic mechanisms that are hard to discover in a vertebrate are often readily revealed in the fly. This relates, as we now explain, to the frequency of gene duplication, which is substantially greater in vertebrate genomes than in the fly genome and has probably been crucial in making vertebrates the complex and subtle creatures that they are.

スポンサードリンク

出典ソース:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6226/

説明:

全く同じ内容の英文がネット上にありましたので、引用させて頂きます。詳細は出典ソースをご覧下さい。

 

英文の後には難しい英単語については日本語訳もついていました。例えばDrosophila(ショウジョウバエ)、gene duplication(遺伝子重複)、homologs(相同体)等です。

 

問題としては下線部の理由を問うもの、240字だったと思います。

「何故ショウジョウバエの研究が脊椎動物の発展のキーとなるのか本文の内容に合うように240字以内で説明しなさい」というような質問です。

大問2

Okinawa Communicable Diseases Statement 2014

Introduction        February 15, 2014

Asia and Japan now share the same boat economically, socially, and culturally at all level.
The outbreaks of SARS and novel avian influenza such as H7N9 have proved that the threats of communicable diseases to our health are ever increasing. At Kyushu Okinawa
Summit held in July 2000, Japan has launched “Okinawa Infectious Diseases Initiative”, calling out for global cooperation in taking actions against communicable diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, polio. Fourteen years since then, on February 14-15 th , 2014, on the same island of Okinawa, key persons in the very field from public and private sectors as well as governments and academia gathered to take part in “Nikkei Asian Conference”. The participants reached recognition that communicable diseases in Asia is and will always be one of the largest risks, and agreed to “Okinawa Communicable Diseases Statement 2014” as shown below.

I. Increasing Importance of Joint Efforts between Japan and Asian Countries in the Fight against Communicable Diseases

With more than half of population of the world,Asia including Japan is and will continue to be the center of the global economy and scientific community. As Japan and Asia become more and more interdependent, joint and coordinated efforts in this Region to fight against communicable diseases will be a pressing issue.
II. What is Expected of Japan
Given track record of Japan in the fight against communicable diseases as well as human,
technical and financial resources available in the country, the participants of the conference
expressed their wish that Japan would make further contributions to prevention and control of communicable diseases world wide. The same level of expectations was expressed
for Okinawa, given its unique geopolitical position and past experience in elimination of
such communicable diseases as filariasis and malaria.

III. Actions for Japan to Take in Order to Further
Contribute

1) It is evident from our experience from global outbreaks including SARS that communicable diseases cause not only human health impact, but also serious impact on society and economy of a country. We also know well that once the pandemic settles down, society and mass media care less for the danger of communicable diseases and awareness towards crisis is not necessarily persistent. The society, corporate world as well as government need to take measures to strongly and continuously keep awareness towards communicable diseases.

2) Drawing upon Japan’s past experience and technical expertise available in the country, Japan should aim to develop and make available new medicines, vaccines, and diagnostic tools for health problems which are associated with high disease burden or are neglected, including zoonosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis. We have to develop innovative business models taking into account the experiences that we gained with initial efforts such as Global Health Innovative Technology Fund (GHIT). 

3) Participants all agreed that the level of basic researches in Japan is high. However, on the part of researchers in Japan, the level of commitment to and interest in applying the fruits of the basic research to public health use is relatively low. While participants recognized some progress made, the system to fill the gap between basic research
and its application is still insufficient both in terms of human resources and financial investment. All stakeholders in Asia including private sectors are requested to make joint effort to address this gap.

4) Though clinical studies overseas and cooperation by other developing countries are
sometimes indispensable for development of new drugs such as those for multi-drug resistant bacteria such as MDR-TB and XDR-Acinetobacter, the system to implement the required collaboration has not yet been fully developed. Systems for collaboration between Japan and other countries in the area of clinical research have to be developed in such a way to benefit both parties. Toward that end, development and exchanges of human
resources in various level such as researchers and clinicians is necessary. If and when above is achieved, the time required for clinical trial will be extensively reduced.
5) Our regulatory system has not yet gained same level of recognition and respect as Western counterpart. We must reform further our regulatory authority in such a way that our regulatory system gains the international reputation in the area of safety, efficiency and ethics. It is important for Japan to strengthen collaboration with other countries, particularly neighboring countries.

6) Though there is a commonly held view that average life expectancy will not reach the level of industrialized countries unless GDP per capita exceeds a certain level, our experience has shown that that is not the case at all. As a matter of fact, our experiences have shown that life expectancy had already reached the level of the western industrialized countries even before the accelerated growth of GDP was made after the World War II. This illustrates the importance of public health measures, including effort to build equitable health systems and community participation and establishing public health centers. This message should be shared with other countries in Asia. 

7) It is indispensable that Asia and Japan make closer collaboration and together address the challenges faced by communicable diseases. Towards that end, enhancing multi-layered network among all the stakeholders, the relevant organizations and countries as well as collaboration between private and public sectors are essential. While some progress has already been made in collaboration of all the relevant parties, further stride has to be made to translate the joint efforts into tangible outcomes in the spirit of “one health concept”.

8) Given Okinawa’s unique geopolitical and historical position and rich experience in the fight against communicable diseases, Okinawa is in the best position to serve as the center of Japan’s fight against communicable diseases in Asia and worldwide.

IV. Conclusive Words
The participants have agreed that this conference is the valuable first step to further enhance our fight against communicable diseases. Thus the participants strongly suggested that the organizer keep up this momentum by making further commitment to building upon the success of this first meeting and to continual dialogue and discussion among participants so that the further progress can be achieved.

 

出典ソース:日経アジア感染症会議より

参考ウェブサイト:http://ac.nikkeibp.co.jp/bio/okinawa0214/

参考資料:英文テキスト(日本語訳つき)

説明:

  こちらは日経アジア感染症会議の英文を読んでの問いでした。「communicable diseases(感染症)」対策に対する日本、沖縄の役割についての質問です。

 英文を読んで、うまく字数制限を守り要約できるかがポイントです。日本語もかなり長文になりますから、小論文のスキルも多少は関係してきます。

 そういう意味で、単に英語の問題というわけではなく文字通り小論文の筆記試験の要素も含まれています。日本語でもこれだけの長文を制限時間内にまとめるのは難しい感じる受験生も多いのではないでしょうか。

 

 日頃から医療について興味をもち、国内外、沖縄に関する医療問題を読んでいることが必要になります。

 全く沖縄に興味がない受験生、沖縄特有の医療問題に疎い学生に入学されても困りますから、とても良い問題ではないでしょうか。